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The Jaipur-Atrauli gharana also known as the "Jaipur Gharana",Atrauli-"Jaipur Gharana",and "Alladiyakhani Gharana" is a Khayal based stylized singing family-hood (Gharana), founded by Ustad. Alladiya Khan(1855-1946)in the late 19th Century.An offshoot of the Agra Gharana,the Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana acquired its name and status as a Gharana in the early half of the 20th century as a result of the growing popularity of stalwarts of this Gharana,like Smt. Kesarbai Kerkar, Smt. Mogubai Kurdikar and Pt. Mallikarjun Mansur.
The Gharana is unique in that it was the first Gharana to be founded in Khayal Gayaki,whereas other major Gharanas were previously founded as Dhrupad-Dhamar Gayakis and eventually adopted or revived into the Khayal Gayaki.
The founder of this gharana,Ustad. Alladiya Khan initially developed the unique Gayaki of this Gharana following the loss of his voice which prompted him to develop an adjusted singing style to accommodate his ailment.This thrust Alladiya Khan to explore the various qualities which he chose fittingly to progress a new singing style in.As a result of his exploration, he raised the level of musical and vocal artistry to such heights that he was acclaimed as the 'High Priest of Khayal Gayaki.' Barrister Jayakar, a connoisseur of classical music, was moved to call him the 'Mount Everest of music'. Signature and specialty Raags of this Gharana (some revived or created by Utd. Alladiya Khan) include Sampoorna Malkauns, Basanti Kedar, Basant Bahar, Kaunshi Kanada, and Nat Kamod among others.
Gharana History Four major Gharanas are recognized in Hindustani classical khayal music: Gwalior, Agra, Kirana and Jaipur-Atrauli. Others are less pervasive, but no less enchanting, such as Indore, Rampur, Mewati, Patiala, and Bhendi-Bazar.The Jaipur-Atrauli gharana acquired its name and status as a Gharana from the time of Alladiya Khan in the early half of the 20th century.He raised the level of artistry to such heights that he was acclaimed as the high priest of khayal gayaki.Barrister Jayakar, a connoisseur of classical music, was moved to call him "Gaan Samraat" — "The Mount Everest of music".
Gharana Ancestry The ancestral origin of the Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana was said to be from Nath Vishwambhar, noted for setting to Raags the tunes of the shlokas in his puja. The great musician composer Swami Haridas was also born in this family and the great Tansen and Baiju were his pupils. Religious Ancestry Somewhere along the next generations following Swami Haridas, the religious affiliation of the Gharana's musical ancestors seems to have changed, where these Gaud Brahmins became Muslims. Natthu Khan and Mantol Khan were two stalwarts of this Gharana, four to five generations down the line. They imbibed the practices of both Hindu and Muslim traditions. Alladiya Khan, for instance, wore the Janva (sacred Hindu thread) all his life, dressed like a Maharashtrian, complete with the Kolhapuri turban, yet did not skip a day of his Namaaz (Muslim prayer). His compositions praise Mahadev (Shiva) and Allah with equal fervor. Many of the Raags and compositions sung in the Jaipur gharana come from the tradition of Haveli Sangeet, like the compositions "Deva Deva Satsang" in Raag Savani Kalyan, "Aadidata Ant" in Raag Malkauns, "Anahat Aadi Naad" in Raag Savani Nat, "Devta Aadi Sab" in Raag Kukubh Bilawal, "Devi Durge" in Raag Sukhiya Bilawal, and a host of others in which Hindu devotional themes were used by Utd. Alladiya Khan.
Gharana Name: Scholars say the hyphenated moniker of this Gharana recognizes that Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana musicians originally came from Atrauli near Aligarh (in Uttar Pradesh) and migrated to the court of the Maharaja of Jaipur, their principal patron. Others say they came to the Jaipur Maharaja's court and then dispersed to various other courts in the area, like Jodhpur, Uniyara, Bundi, Atrauli etc. After establishing himself in the north, Utd. Alladiya Khan migrated to the court of Shahu Maharaj in Kolhapur and became his court musician. Founder of the Gharana Ustad. Ghulam Ahmed "Alladiya" Khan was initiated into music by his father, Khwaja Ahmad Khan and his uncle, Jehangir Khan in both the Dhrupad and Khayal styles. He also had the privilege of being guided by two famous composers of the time, [Ramzan Khan|[Ramzan Khan "Rangeele"]] ( Faiyaz Khan's paternal grandfather) and Mehboob Khan "Darasapiya" (Vilayat Hussein Khan's maternal uncle).
The young Alladiya Khan was closely associated with Wazir Khan "binkar" at Indore and Bombay. The Meend of his gayaki can be traced to this influence. Today, only the Khayal tradition remains. He was known to have been greatly influenced by Utd. Mubarak Khan's (Gwalior gharana) style that blended the Swar and Taal aspects of khayal singing for the first time.